The Tragedy Of Omayra Sánchez And The Nevado Del Ruiz Eruption

Sometimes all it takes is a short story, a moving interview, or in this case, a poignant photograph for an individual’s story to become etched into collective memory. 

Omayra Sánchez is a name that today resonates with both tragedy and resilience. Her and her story not only serve as a powerful testament to the devastating forces of nature but also to the human spirit’s unwavering strength.

In 1985, the Nevado del Ruiz volcano unleashed its fury upon the Colombian town of Armero. It left death and destruction in its wake.

Amidst the chaos and heartbreak, a young girl named Omayra found herself trapped beneath the rubble. Her desperate struggle quickly became a global spectacle that would forever change our perception of natural disasters and our responses to them.

The harrowing tale of Omayra Sánchez, from the catastrophic volcanic eruption to her grueling ordeal and the worldwide outcry that followed, leaves us with many lessons to learn.

And, to think, it all grew out of a single, consequential photograph.

Frank Fournier’s photograph of Sánchez.

The Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano

In 1985, in northern Colombia, all hell broke loose.

With shocking speed and unpredictability, the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano viciously erupted, leaving a trail of destruction. The impact was catastrophic – an estimated 20,000 people were believed dead or missing.

Multiple towns nearby were buried under the wave of ash and mud triggered by the eruption. Armero, nestled in a valley below the towering 16,200-foot-high volcano, suffered the most severe devastation.

The eruption occurred during the night; its people were caught unaware of the impending disaster.

Nevado del Ruiz, known locally as “the Sleeping Lion,” had remained dormant for nearly 150 years. This lulled the inhabitants into a false sense of security.

Shortly after 9 PM, the severe eruption began. It melted the summit’s snowcap and triggered a rapid descent of mud and debris down the mountain at astonishing speeds.

Tragically, rescue efforts were hindered by fallen bridges and impassable roads. This impacted the response in remote areas like Armero.

It was amidst this chaos that the plight of Omayra Sánchez emerged – a young girl in desperate need of help amid the wreckage and destruction.

Omayra Sánchez: Trapped and Struggling

Omayra Sánchez, a courageous 13-year-old girl, found herself trapped in the aftermath of the devastating eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Armero.

She miraculously survived the destructive lahar – the mudflow that originates on the slopes of a volcano. But her father and aunt tragically lost their lives inside their demolished house.

Rescue teams quickly rushed to her aid upon arrival. But they soon discovered that Omayra’s legs were firmly wedged beneath the weight of the collapsed roof.

Despite their best efforts, they couldn’t free her without risking severe injury to her body.

To prevent her from drowning, they placed a tire around her body as divers worked tirelessly to reach her submerged legs, only to find her aunt’s lifeless body beneath her feet.

Remarkably, even in the face of her dire circumstances, Omayra displayed moments of positivity. She sang to a journalist volunteering at the scene. She asked for sweet food and cooperated during interviews.

However, fear and despair occasionally overwhelmed her, leading her to pray and cry.

As the hours turned into days, Omayra’s condition worsened. Her eyes reddened, her face swelled, and her hands whitened. Tragically, despite multiple attempts to save her, the rescuers were forced to make a heart-wrenching decision.

Omayra’s legs were trapped under the concrete in a way that made it impossible to free her without amputation.

They were lacking the necessary surgical equipment and were aware of the associated risks. Therefore, the doctors reluctantly concluded that allowing her to pass away peacefully was the most humane choice.

Omayra Sánchez endured nearly three agonizing nights, approximately 60 hours, before succumbing to the elements and the likely effects of gangrene or hypothermia.

Her heartbreaking struggle would forever remain a haunting memory of the devastating natural disaster.

Global Attention and Public Outcry

While rescue and aid workers were the first on the scene after the destructive eruption, members of the press were not far behind.

One photographer in particular, a French reporter named Frank Fournier, arrived in Armero in time to witness the devastation and subsequent struggle.

It was Fournier who would make the world aware of Omayra Sánchez and her tragic fate. The haunting image he snapped was titled “The Agony of Omayra Sánchez.” It would come to define her story on a global scale.

The photograph was published six months after her tragic death. It garnered widespread attention and went on to win the World Press Photo of the Year for 1985.

Omayra’s face became instantly recognizable worldwide. Her pain became the symbol of the Armero tragedy.

The impact of the photograph was profound, as television cameras had already transmitted Omayra’s harrowing struggle into homes across the globe.

The publication of the picture sparked widespread anger and outrage. Many had to grapple with the realization that technology had captured her final moments, while simultaneously being unable to save her life.

The powerlessness felt by Fournier during his documentation of Omayra’s courage, suffering, and dignity resonated deeply. He hoped that his reporting would mobilize people to aid those who had been rescued and to prevent future tragedies.

In the face of Omayra’s impending fate, he recognized the importance of sharing her story, ensuring that the world bore witness to what she endured.

Omayra’s Legacy and Lessons Learned

Today, the tomb of Omayra Sánchez serves as a place of pilgrimage. It draws locals and tourists alike who offer prayers and solemn remembrance, hoping that such a catastrophe is never repeated.

Her legacy is a profound one.

Her tragic fate served as a wake-up call to the world. It highlighted the devastating consequences of natural disasters and the urgent need for improved disaster preparedness and response.

Omayra’s story continues to inspire ongoing efforts to mitigate the human cost of such events. And her image remains a powerful symbol of resilience and the will to keep fighting.

Through her struggle, Omayra taught us the importance of compassion and solidarity. Her story spurred the ongoing pursuit of measures to protect vulnerable communities from the wrath of nature.


“1985: Volcano Kills Thousands in Colombia.” On This Day BBC | 13 November, November 13, 1985.

“Omayra Sanchez, Young Victim of the Armero Tragedy in Colombia, 1985.” Rare Historical Photos, November 25, 2021.

“Picture Power: Tragedy of Omayra Sanchez.” BBC News, September 30, 2005.

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